Unit 4

GRAMMAR

  • Complete the sentences with a suitable modal verb. Use must, mustn’t, have (to), not have to in the right tense.

Skiing instructor to his group: “You 1__have to__ put on your helmets now and wear them all the time. You 2______________ take them off when you use the ski lift or chair lift.”

When you travel by train you 3______________ never lean out of the window when the train is moving. It’s very dangerous.

A guide: “We’re going into the museum now. You 4______________ leave all your bags in a special container that will be locked during your visit. I’m afraid you 5______________ take any photos here, so leave your cameras in your bags, please.”

I booked our hotel on the Internet yesterday evening. I 6______________ pay right away, I just 7______________ give them my credit card number. They’ll send me a confirmation email. I 8______________ print it as soon as I get it and I absolutely 9______________ forget it at home. When we come to the hotel, we 10______________ show it to get the room.

  • Complete the text with the right form of the verbs in brackets. Use past simple active or passive.

CHOPPERS

A Chopper is a type of motorcycle that has been modified from an original motorcycle design (‘chopped’) or built from scratch to have a hand-crafted appearance. It all 1__started__ (start) after the Second World War when some people 2____________________ (not be) satisfied with Harley-Davidson motors. They 3_____________________ (need) something different. First the fenders 4____________________ (remove) from the bikes and the handlebars 5____________________ (raise) high. The front tyre 6____________________ (make) thinner. Anything that 7_____________________ (not need) had to be removed.

When the film Easy Rider 8____________________ (release) in 1969, more and more people 9___________________ (want) a Chopper. Not just a Harley-Davidson, but other brands 10____________________ (use) to make them. The most valuable Choppers were those that 11____________________ (make) from scratch.

  • Rewrite the sentences by changing them from active to passive.

TGV trains

  • They built the first TGV train in 1981.

 The first TGV train was built in 1981.___________________________________

  • Many people in France use TGV trains.

  • TGV trains hold the world speed record, which stands at 574.8 kph.

  • Engineers designed the trains to be eco-friendly.

  • The lights on the trains use low-energy light bulbs.

  • They compact the waste and recycle the waste water.

  • TGV trains connect cities across France and neighbouring countries.

  • They used the duplex TGV for the first time in 1995.

  • The duplex TGV features two sitting carriages.

  • Choose the correct verb form to complete the sentences. Circle a, b or c.

Did you know that …

  • in 1642, while still a teenager, Blaise Pascal 1_______ some pioneering work on calculating machines and after three years of effort and 50 prototypes he 2_______ the mechanical calculator?
  • the first working computer 3_______ by Frederic C. Williams and Tom Kilburn at the University of Manchester in 1948?
  • the first commercial desktop computer was Programma 101? It 4_______ by Italian manufacturer Olivetti. It 5_______ $3,200, which equalled $23,000 in 2011. About 44,000 units 6_______, primarily in the US.
  • there are over 200 social networks and you 7_______ to register with most of them unless you are 13 or older?
  • more than 92% of connections on Facebook 8_______ through a friend of a friend?
  • Google 9_______ by two Stanford University students who decided not to obtain doctor’s degree, but create a company instead?
  • Google uses various versions of their logo for use on holidays, birthdays of famous people and major events, such as the Olympics. They 10_______ as Google Doodles.
  • Google 11_______ after a very large number, googol – a one, followed by one hundred zeros. This number 12_______ to show that the search engine wants to provide large quantities of information for people, but they 13_______ it.
  • A starts                      B     started                        C     was started
  • A invented                 B     is invented                  C     was invented
  • A developed              B     is developed               C     was developed
  • A produced                B     was produced             C     were produced
  • A cost                        B     costs                            C     was cost
  • A sold                        B     are sold                       C     were sold
  • A don’t allow             B     aren’t allowed            C     weren’t allowed
  • A make                      B     made                          C     are made
  • A founded                  B     is founded                   C     was founded
  • A know                      B     are known                   C     were known
  • A named                    B     is named                     C     was named
  • A chose                      B     is chosen                     C     was chosen
  • A misspelled              B     are misspelled            C     were misspelled

VOCABULARY

  • Match the underlined words in sentences 1–10 with their explanations a–j.
  • It’s a good idea to visit famous places off-season because it’s much cheaper.
  • I’d like a return ticket to Brighton, please.
  • When you travel on the Tube in London, you can use a smartcard called an Oyster card or a Travelcard.
  • You must put credit on your Oyster card before using it.
  • When you have used almost all your credit, you must top up your Oyster card.
  • You must touch your Oyster card on card readers when travelling so that you are charged the right fare.
  • You save a lot of time and money if you book your tickets to London attractions in advance.
  • Fast Track tickets for the London Eye allow you to bypass a section of the queue.
  • All tickets to the London Eye include free access to the 4D Experience.
  • If you book a ticket to the London Eye online, you get a 10 per cent discount.
  • the price of a bus/train journey
  • money
  • to a place and back
  • before the journey
  • go past
  • lower price
  • during a less busy period
  • also allow
  • add money to
  • used to pay for things and store information

1 __g___         2 ______         3 ______         4 ______         5 ______

6 ______         7 ______         8 ______         9 ______         10 ______

  • Match the words with their explanations.
1        to commute

2        a customs officer

3        a cruise

4        baggage reclaim

5        a platform

6        delayed

7        jet lag

8        boarding pass

9        a coach

10    to hitchhike

a        a journey on a big ship during which you visit different places

b        to travel for free in a stranger’s car

c         a place at an airport where you get your bags after your plane has landed

d        arriving or departing at a later time

e        a card you have to show before you get on a plane

f          to travel between work and home

g        a comfortable bus for travelling long distances

h        a person who checks your bags when you enter another country

i          the feeling of tiredness after a long flight

j          a raised part at a railway station where you get on or off a train

1 __f___          2 ______         3 ______         4 ______         5 ______

6 ______         7 ______         8 ______         9 ______         10 ______

 

  • Complete the sentences. Use a word from the same word family as the word in brackets.
  • I can’t find a direct __flight__ from Ljubljana to New York. (fly)
  • There’s just a narrow road through this valley but there are lots of motorbike They go so fast that you have to drive really carefully. (ride)
  • My sister knows all the modern fashion __________________ and she thinks the young ones are much more interesting than the famous ones. (design)
  • Americans have some rather special __________________; June 14, for example, is Flag Day and February 2 is called Groundhog Day. (celebrate)
  • We’re learning about the American Civil War in our history lessons and we’ve watched a film about __________________. (slave)
  • There are huge coffee __________________ in Latin America, Africa and Asia. (plant)
  • Wars cause so much unnecessary __________________. (suffer)
  • A healthy diet __________________ talked to us about the importance of organic farming. (campaign)
  • In summer, many people from __________________ Europe travel on holiday to the south. (north)
  • Lots of people had an unhappy __________________ because of World War II. (child)

READING

Read the text and complete the exercise.

Rolls-Royce and the Spirit of Ecstasy

Rolls-Royce Motor Cars is a British company which makes luxury cars. When Fredrick Henry Royce bought his first car, he wasn’t happy with it. He decided to build a better car. His cars became famous for their silent ride. Charles Stewart Rolls, who sold French cars in London, noticed Royce’s cars. Rolls and Royce met in Manchester in 1904. During the meeting Rolls was impressed by Royce’s qualities. The two men soon started a partnership. Rolls died when his plane crashed in 1910. He was the first Briton to be killed in a plane crash. When Royce died 23 years later, the “RR” logo on the cars was changed from red to black. Some people believe that was done as a sign of mourning. Actually, Royce decided to do that before he died because the colour black was more suitable than red.  Rolls-Royce cars have a special bonnet ornament. It’s called the Spirit of Ecstasy. It is a woman leaning forwards with her arms behind her. It was added to the early models because some customers thought that such a good car should have a special mascot.The ornament was inspired by a secret love story between John Walter, who was from an important family, and his secretary Eleanor Thornton. It was created based on Eleanor’s appearance and presented in February 1911. It has been a part of Rolls-Royce cars for more than a century. The present model is about three inches tall. The Spirit of Ecstasy’s hundredth birthday was celebrated in 2011. More than a hundred Rolls-Royce cars went for a drive around London and a famous photographer was asked to make a hundred photos inspired by the Spirit of Ecstasy.

Complete the sentences with one word only.

  • Rolls-Royce are _________________ cars.
  • Royce’s first cars were famous because they were _________________.
  • Rolls and Royce met in _________________ in 1904.
  • Rolls was killed in a _________________ crash.
  • The first “RR” logos were _________________ then they were changed to black.
  • The Spirit of Ecstasy is a _________________ leaning forwards.
  • John Walter was in _________________ with Eleanor Thornton.
  • The ornament looks like _________________.
  • In 2011 the ornament was a _________________ years old.
  • A famous photographer took a hundred _________________ inspired by the ornament.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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